Finance and trade are the two important parts of national economic activities, and it is also an important channel for regional economic connections. The following is the essay of the undergraduate graduation thesis compiled by you for your reference. Summary of the Backeting Thesis of the Backeting Backeting Thesis "Exploring the Cultivation of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Cultivation of International Trade Major in Higher Vocational Trade" Abstract: In the context of "mass entrepreneurship, innovation" and building an innovative national strategy, the training of entrepreneurial innovation talents is to realize innovative models The key to the country. This article starts from the current status of entrepreneurial and innovation ability of international trade majors in higher vocational colleges in my country, and puts forward suggestions for the cultivation of entrepreneurial and innovation in international trade majors in higher vocational colleges. Keywords: international trade; entrepreneurial innovation ability; training 2L century is an era of high -tech and rapid development of new technologies, and a new era characterized by knowledge and technological innovation. The 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed the development strategy of "improving independent innovation capabilities and building innovative countries" and "promoting entrepreneurship to drive employment." In 2010, the Ministry of Education put forward the "Ministry of Education's Opinions on Vigorously Promoting Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship of College Students" and put forward "carrying out innovation and entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities to actively encourage university students to start their own business." In 2015, "Volkswagen Entrepreneurship, Popular Innovation" was proposed in the government work report, which inspired the new wave of entrepreneurship and innovation of the whole people. At the same time, the central and local governments have successively introduced a series of preferential policies and convenient measures to support and encourage college students' innovation and entrepreneurship. The core of building an innovative country is to have innovative talents, and the key to the cultivation of innovative talents lies in education. Higher vocational colleges cultivate skill -oriented talents that meet the needs of social development. In order to meet the development of the times and the needs of the construction of an innovative society, the cultivation of innovative talents is urgent. This paper sort out the problems existing in the cultivation of international trade and innovation in international trade college students in higher vocational colleges in my country, and put forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions. I. The problems in the cultivation of entrepreneurial innovation in international trade college students 1. The teaching content and teaching methods are more old. Although the boom of cross -border e -commerce has swept the world, it has changed the traditional international trade method and greatly reduced the entrepreneurial threshold of the foreign trade industry. At present, some international trade majors in higher vocational colleges have failed to adapt to the new trend of social and industry development. In the teaching process, some teachers focus on the explanation of professional theoretical knowledge. The teaching methods are single. They are mainly indoctrination of knowledge, ignoring the cultivation of students' independent thinking ability. In the practice teaching link, they only pay attention to students to learn operating skills and ignore the cultivation of creative thinking. 2. Entrepreneurship and innovation education failed to effectively integrate into the curriculum system. Some higher vocational colleges failed to pay enough attention to entrepreneurial innovation education, and even did not offer related courses. Some institutions have set up entrepreneurial innovation courses, but they just exist in the form of independent forms of elective or compulsory. 3. Lack of entrepreneurial innovation education teachers. International trade is a very practical discipline. At present, although some higher vocational colleges are given priority to teachers with actual work experience in corporate work when recruiting, a large number of teachers lack practical work experience, entrepreneurial innovation theory and practical experience experience insufficient. 4. Lack of entrepreneurial innovation support system. The cultivation of entrepreneurial innovation talents requires system support. At the level of some higher vocational colleges, the support of students' entrepreneurial innovation activities is not enough, and they have not fully used the resources of enterprises, society and the government to effectively carry out entrepreneurial innovation education. 2. Suggestions for the cultivation of entrepreneurial innovation capabilities of international trade college students 1. Incorporate entrepreneurial innovation education into the training plan Higher vocational international trade majors are professional and applied talents with strong international trade practice capabilities. In order to achieve this goal, the innovative talent training model is the key to innovative talent training. The talent training of international trade majors in higher vocational colleges should be based on innovation ability and quality. The concepts, courses and practices of innovation and entrepreneurship education should be integrated into all aspects of talent training programs. Creative, innovative thinking and ability. 2. Strengthen the combination of engineering, school -enterprise cooperation, and build the training of entrepreneurial innovation and innovation capabilities for entrepreneurship and innovation platforms. We must not rely on theory alone, and must be rooted in practice. Therefore, it is necessary to follow the path of "combining engineering and school -enterprise cooperation" to cultivate and exercise students' entrepreneurial innovation ability. The combination of engineering combines the process of "work" and "learning" and a unified teaching model. School -enterprise integration is the foundation and guarantee of the combination of engineering. Through school -enterprise cooperation, enterprises are introduced into schools, enterprises are selected to teach students to teach students, provide training for teachers, students study and go to enterprise practice alternately, and schools and enterprises jointly build an entrepreneurial innovation practice platform to provide students with rich practice Opportunities to allow students' theoretical knowledge to be used and exercise their entrepreneurial innovation ability in practice. Using the practical platform provided by a variety of school -enterprise cooperation models to achieve the purpose of continuously cultivating and training students' entrepreneurial and innovation ability. 3. Strengthen the construction of entrepreneurial innovation teachers, and innovate teaching methods and curriculum content In the context of entrepreneurial innovation, entrepreneurial innovation has become a national strategy. Teachers in higher vocational colleges should take the initiative to learn the theory of entrepreneurial innovation and carry out practical activities. Such as the use of corporate exercise activities in the winter and summer vacations, participating in various entrepreneurial innovation training, and actively organizing students to participate in entrepreneurial innovation competitions. Schools can also invite experts to invite successful entrepreneurial alumni, entrepreneurs and other successful people to open a lecture, forum, and serve as entrepreneurial innovation education mentors to strengthen the construction of entrepreneurial innovation teachers. In the process of teaching, teachers should change the single teaching methods in the past, and adopt various teaching methods such as case teaching methods, group teaching methods, and group discussions to organize classroom teaching to cultivate and exercise students' ability to think and creative thinking independently and creative thinking. During the teaching process, pay attention to cultivating students' awareness of entrepreneurial innovation, encourage students to carry out entrepreneurial innovation activities, stimulate their entrepreneurial and innovation interest, and make them a worldwide view of entrepreneurial innovation. In terms of curriculum, the course content should cover the industry's forefront new knowledge. In the context of cross -border e -commerce, the curriculum system for international trade should be added to the relevant courses of cross -border e -commerce; for the cultivation of entrepreneurial innovation capabilities of international trade students, compulsory and elective courses of entrepreneurial innovation should be set up. Secondly, when conducting training courses, pay attention to combining professional knowledge with entrepreneurial innovation education to provide students with opportunities for entrepreneurial innovation practice. For example, during the training of cross -border e -commerce courses, students are encouraged to carry out real cross -border e -commerce sales, cultivate students' hands -on ability and explore spirit, and stimulate their enthusiasm for entrepreneurship and innovation. 4. Strengthening the construction of an entrepreneurial innovation support system to build an entrepreneurial innovation ability is a systematic long -term project, which requires a strong support system and system. Higher vocational colleges should establish and improve the support system for entrepreneurial innovation education, create a good atmosphere of entrepreneurship and innovation, and encourage teachers and students to carry out entrepreneurial innovation practice in order to finally achieve the purpose of cultivating entrepreneurial innovation capabilities. For example, school -level entrepreneurial innovation funds can be set up, and activities such as entrepreneurial innovation competitions can be established to encourage students to participate. At the same time, higher vocational colleges should also actively use government departments at all levels to support the support policies of entrepreneurship and innovation, and use the government to provide training, services, venues, tax reduction and funds such as entrepreneurial and innovation activities of college students, and to provide entrepreneurial innovation with governments at all levels for entrepreneurial innovation. The development of education creates a practical platform, guides students to enthusiasm for entrepreneurship and innovation, and allows students to grow from practice. References:  Yin Ying. Research on the problem of innovation ability of higher vocational students [J]. Education and occupation, 2014 (3).  Qu Wanbo, Li Yan. Education and occupation, 2013 (4).  Xu Xing. The construction of the innovation ability training system of higher vocational students [j]. Frontier, 2013 (4).  Zeng Wenbo, Huang Qingnan, Wu Qiqi. Electric information professionals innovated innovation Exploration and Practice of Capability Training Model [J]. China Science and Technology Information, 2011 (12): 161-162. Fan Wen Articles 2 "Application of Project Teaching Law in International Trade Practice Teaching" [Abstract] The development of economic integration, more and more enterprises have carried out international trade, and the requirements of enterprises to foreign trade personnel are getting higher and higher. In the international trade practical teaching of higher vocational vocational vocational education, students cultivated by traditional teaching methods can no longer meet the development of international trade development. The needs of the international trade practice in higher vocational education make full use of the project teaching method. With the help of the project, students are used to simulate actual trade, realize the combination of theoretical and practical, and cultivate students' theoretical knowledge ability. [Keywords] Project teaching method; high school; international trade practice; applied in traditional international trade teaching, teachers mainly explain the knowledge points in the textbooks, supplemented by cases to guide students, and teach through the arrangement of lessons. At present, the world economy has developed rapidly, and its requirements for foreign trade personnel involving international trade are getting higher and higher. I. The necessity of international trade in the application of project teaching method in international trade practice is the core content of international trade majors in higher vocational colleges. Students 'learning effect on the course is directly related to the mastery of students' international trade professional skills. If Continuing the traditional teaching methods, it will only cause students to have high scores and low energy, and cannot meet the needs of future social and economic development on trading talents. In order to improve the teaching effect of this course of international trade practice and cultivate trade talents that meet the needs of social development, the teacher team in the teaching must analyze the teaching tasks, teaching goals, and the basic ability of students through teaching needs The teaching tasks are the main content of teaching, with the training of students 'professional ability, carefully designing teaching programs, building a knowledge framework for international trade practical courses, screening for teaching cases, and cultivating students' practical ability in actual trade. The use of project teaching methods can enable students 'perception of theoretical knowledge through project practice to achieve a rational understanding of knowledge; the starting point of project teaching method can cultivate students' learning interest, and by allowing students to simulate the specific processes in international trade, to cultivate students to solve the actual situation The ability of the problem; the project teaching method in the international trade practice is ultimately implemented to the results of the students. The teacher conducts a quantitative score through the performance of the students. Through the teacher's recognition, students can improve their self -confidence and learn harder. Second, problems existing in international trade teaching 1. Fully based on this announcement, and the curriculum structure is unreasonable. The current national trade teaching of higher vocational colleges is fully carried out in accordance with the content of the textbooks, but the focus of the textbook content is biased to introduce theoretical knowledge to students, and ignores the cultivation of students' practical ability. Coupled with the rapid changes in the world economic form, it promotes the continuous update of international trade policies and derives new economic theories. However, it takes a longer time to make it into the textbook, which causes the theoretical knowledge of the textbooks to be disconnected. It is difficult to meet the needs of economic development. The trained students only understand theoretical knowledge, but they will not be practical. 2. The teaching method is fixed. International trade practice is a very practical teaching. It requires very high actual operating ability of students, but many contents in teaching only rely on teachers to teach students' memories. Students can not get the opportunity to practice themselves. The understanding of international trade physical objects is also very shallow. 3. The assessment method is unreasonable. The traditional method of assessing students in the test score is very unreasonable for such courses that focus on international trade practices. High scores of students can only show that students 'memory of knowledge points is firm and cannot reflect students' actual application ability. 3. Application of project teaching method in international trade practical teaching 1. Curriculum design principles. (1) Select reasonable and typical international trade physical projects. When designing the project in teaching, the teacher must closely contact the reality, pay attention to its rationality, and mostly adopt a real case that everyone is familiar with in the international trade practice. Students can simulate participation in classroom teaching, allowing students to experience the meaning of textbooks through the character of the project through the participation of the project. (2) Targeted and adaptable when selecting physical items. Teachers should select international trade practical projects based on the focus of teaching and difficulties to help students better solve the difficulties in learning. At the same time, the teacher must take into account the students' knowledge foundation and the ability of students when designing the project. Too simple, otherwise it will not have the training effect on students. The lengthy and complicated case teachers should be appropriately cut according to the teaching time, and the teaching is introduced after streamlined. (3) One of the important parts of the project teaching method is that the teacher evaluates the teacher's focus on the practical performance of the students. In the process of completion of the project, there will be various problems. When summarizing, the teacher must call the question in time, and how the students should improve, compare the characteristics of students in each group, guide the students to avoid their strengths, and improve the students’s students through reviews. Practical ability. 2. The impact of project teaching method on international trade practice courses. International trade practice is the core content of international trade majors in higher vocational colleges. Students 'learning effect on the course is directly related to the mastery of students' international trade professional skills. The phenomenon cannot meet the needs of future social and economic development on trading talents. In order to improve the teaching effect of this course of international trade practice and cultivate trade talents that meet the needs of social development, the teacher team in the teaching must analyze the teaching tasks, teaching goals, and the basic ability of students through teaching needs The teaching tasks are the main content of teaching, with the training of students 'professional ability, carefully designing teaching programs, building a knowledge framework for international trade practical courses, screening for teaching cases, and cultivating students' practical ability in actual trade. Project teaching methods can make students clearly understand the process of international trade. The project teaching method is focusing on the whole teaching as a whole, allowing students to see abstract knowledge through specific cases, so that students will learn, practice, summarize and summarize in practice, so that students will learn theoretical knowledge in the classroom Go to solve practical problems. The use of project teaching methods can enable students 'perception of theoretical knowledge through project practice to achieve a rational understanding of knowledge; the starting point of project teaching method can cultivate students' learning interest, and by allowing students to simulate the specific processes in international trade, to cultivate students to solve the actual situation The ability of the problem; the project teaching method in the international trade practice is ultimately implemented to the results of the students. The teacher conducts a quantitative score through the performance of the students. Through the teacher's recognition, students can improve their self -confidence and learn harder. The project teaching method truly realizes the subject of students as the main body of teaching, realizing the close combination of theoretical knowledge and practice, so that students can actively participate in teaching and successfully achieve the teaching goals of international trade practice. References:  Su Ying. The application exploration of the project teaching method in "International Trade Practice". The use and discussion in China [J]. Science and Technology spread, 2009,09: 79-80.  Shen Jingfang. The application of task-driven teaching method in the international trade practice course [J]. Oriental corporate culture, 2012 (10 )  Zhang Xiaoming, Liu Wenguang, Ji Qingbin, etc. The research and practice of comprehensive teaching solutions for international trade practices [J]. Chinese University Teaching, 2013 (04). "Account collection risk management strategy" Abstract: With the increasingly fierce competition of international trade companies in the international market, the risk management of account receivables is becoming increasingly important, and it has become an important factor affecting corporate efficiency and risk. The article mainly analyzes the characteristics of account receivables of international trading enterprises. In response to the problems of risk management of account receivables of international trade enterprises, it is clear that how to do a good job of the risk management of accounts receivable can help enterprises balance risk and risk and The relationship between income also pointed out that the risk management of accounts receivable, while helping enterprises get more benefits, can help enterprises control the risk of capital and achieve the healthy development of the enterprise. Keywords: international trading enterprises; account receivable risk management; strategy China ’s foreign trade has continued to maintain high -speed growth, which has played an important role in promoting economic growth. From a worldwide perspective, all countries and enterprises that can integrate into the global production network will be very good, and free from outside will be marginalized. Chinese enterprises enter into the torrent of economic globalization, competition and growth, how to ensure the healthy development of the enterprise, have a stable capital chain, and do a good job in the risk management of accounts receivables have become one of the necessary means for enterprises to achieve healthy development. 1. The characteristics of international trade enterprises' accounts receivable. As a trade -in -the -mover, international trading companies face competition. In order to stabilize sales channels, expand product sales, occupy market share, reduce inventory and increase income, sales are usually a kind of enterprise adopted by enterprises. Common means. Once the credit business occurs, international trade companies naturally form accounts receivables under international trade due to the purchase behavior of overseas customers. The scope of upstream and downstream transactions of international trade enterprises has touched all over the world. The cultural ideology of all parties in trading is different, religious beliefs are different, and their attitudes and payment habits have different attitudes towards international trade. Therefore, account receivables of international trading companies often have the following characteristics: First, the targets of accounts receivables are extensive outside the country, involving a wide range of regional width; second, the laws and regulations for account receivables may be international law Or the laws of other countries; the third is that accounts receivable will face unexpected foreign customers due to international political risks; the fourth is that the account receivable encounters the difficulty of collecting money in foreign exchange control in its country or other countries; In order to break the barriers to break the barriers to break the barriers to break the barrier, the risk of paying the barrier; six is that the main currency trading in international trade and the fluctuation of the domestic currency exchange rate fluctuations causes the loss of exchange receivables. Therefore, how to ensure the security of the company's funds during the transaction, and reducing the cost of capital has become an important issue that international trading companies must face. 2. Issues of the risk management of account receivables of international trade enterprises (1) Insufficient corporate control management, resulting in weak daily management medium risk awareness, first that enterprises often only focus on the growth of sales and profit growth. Ignoring the risk of accounts receivable; second, the internal system is not sound enough to establish a comprehensive credit management system; third, the sales staff's risk awareness is weak, guided by expanding the market, and ignoring financial risks. Insufficient analysis and management capabilities have caused comprehensive and timely time to analyze accounts receivable age analysis, sales share analysis, and customer credit analysis. The negligence of these links often leads to the high proportion of sales in daily operations, the proportion of sales is too high, the customer's credit survey is insufficient blind credit, the risk of bad debt and bad debt increases, the awareness of geopolitical risk is weak, and the exchange rate risk is existing. (2) The financial department has poor communication with the business department. Although the accounts receivable belong to the financial management category, as the business department, the sales staff knows the industry's dynamics and the customer status. effect. If the financial staff fails to communicate with sales staff in time in time when customer management, it will often lack sufficient understanding of customers, resulting in failure of the management and control management, the establishment of the payment payment clause is not matched with the actual situation, and the account receivable management is management. It is reduced to simple data analysis, thereby exacerbating the contradiction between financial personnel and business personnel. (3) In non -sensitive traditional concepts of financial factors affecting account receivables, the definition of financial personnel defines limited to accounting personnel, facing account books, accounts for single digital exchanges, monthly routine account accounting treatment And tax declaration. Many financial personnel also lack the motivation to improve their comprehensive quality. Often, they often don't care about changes in the international political and economic situation, and they do not know much about the country where the customers of the accounts receivable. When various political risks occurred in the country where the accounts receivable, the policy changes, the financial personnel of the international trading enterprise often consciously consciously caused a mistake in the risk judgment of account receivables. Risk judgment. And in previous enterprise management, financial personnel have not participated in the management of various links of the daily management of the enterprise, and often involved after the overdue accounts occurred, and the exchange rate risk and political risk have occurred at this time. It plays a role in avoiding the risk of account receivables. 3. Corresponding strategies for the risk management of account receivables of international trading enterprises (1) Constructing the traditional account receivable risk management of the traditional credit risk management system is usually based on the control of overdue account receivables. Only then did you consider how to manage it. Finance personnel are often passive and have not participated in the entire business development process to implement risk management. The modern risk management system should be through the entire chain system that runs through risks before, in the event, and afterwards, so as to establish a complete account receivable risk management system, and improve the risk awareness and control management capabilities of internal personnel in the enterprise. In response to the risks at different levels of accounts receivable, enterprises can start from the following three aspects in establishing the risk management system: 1. Control and set up enterprise risk management departments in advance, configure financial personnel with risk control management capabilities and corresponding financial knowledge systems. , Classified by the risk of account receivables, establishment of pre -control methods for different categories of risks. First, when the new customer was established, improve the customer credit system, design a complete customer file indicator, and obtain a multi -faceted credit information from the business department and the third -party credit company, formulate payment terms and credit quotas that match the customer credit. Second, regularly obtain industry information from channels such as business departments and establish industry risk benchmarking; third, master the changes in the international exchange market, actively intervene in sales pricing at the beginning of sales, use multiple means to lock the exchange rate locking to prevent prevention to prevent prevention currency risk. 2. When controlling sales in the matter, the financial personnel strictly implement the company's order management system and the sales review system. Change the account data in time. When the financial department received the customer's repayment, the accounts receivable should be reached in time, and the customer's credit occupation quota was updated simultaneously. At the same time, credit management personnel need to pay close attention to the customer's operating conditions. When the customer's operating conditions change, the credit management personnel shall timely adjust the customer's credit level and adjust the payment method and credit limit. Financial personnel should also conduct regular accounts receivables. The analysis of the financial status of the enterprise should be adjusted according to the business status and capital flow of the enterprise. Strictly control the proportion of sales revenue in the company's sales, and prevent bad debts strictly. 3. Afterwards, control the financial personnel to regularly carry out customer reconciliation, use emails, fax and other forms, and obtain customer confirmation. For overdue accounts, the age of accounting is analyzed and the collection efforts are stepped up. If the customer's financial status is in substantial difficulties, actively communicate with customers and business personnel, and jointly formulate a feasible receipt plan to effectively reduce the risk of bad debt. (2) Strengthen communication and cooperation with business departments, and enhance the daily work of sales personnel receivable risk awareness. Financial personnel not only only conduct digital analysis, but also see the stories behind the numbers and timely grasp various messages. Therefore, financial personnel and business departments need to strengthen mutual understanding, establish regular communication mechanisms, and timely understand customer conditions, industry conditions, product sales and other situations. At the same time, the sales staff introduced the characteristics and risks under the various payment conditions of the accounts receivable, and timely feedback the latest state of the account receivable to the salesperson to the salesperson to increase the risk awareness of the sales staff's account receivable. Clarify the importance of corporate cash flow, and emphasize that only the smooth return of payment is the end of the sales link. Only the final inflow of cash flow to the company's sales revenue is the real profit foundation of the enterprise. Through the continuous communication and understanding of the two parties, jointly maintain the management of account receivables, control the proportion of total sales of accounts receivable, and ensure the smooth transformation of accounts receivable into corporate cash flow, thereby reducing the risk of business operations. (3) In the daily operation of the risk transfer of accounts receivable, some of the operating income of the enterprise is manifested as accounts receivable instead of intangible cash inflows, which affects the company's cash flow and daily operations. To avoid these risks, enterprises can transfer account receivable credit and exchange rate risks through guarantee agency and export credit insurance. On the one hand, enterprises can use account receivables to guarantee the agency business to pass on the corporate credit and exchange rate risks, and at the same time transform the receivables into substantial cash flow to accelerate the circulation of funds. On the other hand, by paying relatively limited and fixed insurance premiums, enterprises lock unpredictable risks as fixed financial costs of pre -tax pre -taxation, so as to achieve stable operations. Fourth, conclusion receivables are the inevitable result of the overall sales revenue in the normal business activities of the enterprise to expand the market share and increase sales revenue. It is a normal phenomenon in market economic activities. Only by facing effective risk management of accounts receivables, adopting a series of methods to reduce the risk of receivables, and the disadvantages of the accounts receivable, can the company achieve stable and sustainable development in the international market competition in the international market competition It plays a positive role to help enterprises grow healthy. References:  Tian Yunyin. International Trade Practice Exquisite Lecture [M]. China Customs Publishing House, 2012.  Niu Lili Qi Fei. Analysis of the risk resolution of accounts receivable [J]. Manager, 2014 (2014 (2014 (2014 (2014 ( 55).  Mo Yingxue. Research on the Risk Management of Accounts receivable of Enterprise [J]. Finance and Audit, 2014 (16). Example of Graduation Thesis 3. Fan Essays of International Trade Graduation Thesis 4. International Trade Professional Graduation Thesis 5. Talk about international trade major thesis 6. Regarding international trade professional graduation thesis 7. Relevant graduation thesis of international trade
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