The first book I read carefully this month was Mr. Liang Qichao's "Reading Guide". This book is really read every line and every line, rather than reading the novel at a glance. In some places, you need to go forward to compare it. Reading while thinking, it takes some time and effort. There are too many wonderful remarks and expressions, so that the number of notes that Kindle allowed to export is more than several times to export the notes.
This is the guidance of Chinese learning and reading by Mr. Liang Qichao to Tsinghua University. It is impossible to read in ancient Chinese works. All of them are not read. Which must be read or even recite? What are the best reads? What do not need to read? The content of these works is deep and shallow. How can we learn from shallow to deep? What are the good ways to read and learn for classics? These answers in the book.
In this book, people who have no or rarely found a system of Chinese learning in this book have given "the minimum must -have reading", a total of twenty -four types Essence The author believes that no matter what the major of these books, "all must be read, otherwise they cannot be considered as a Chinese scholar."
. According to different categories, the author gives different different classifications respectively. Suggestions, such as the history of cultivation and thought, the recommendations are "The Analects of Confucius", "Mencius", "Lao Tzu", "Mozi", "Xunzi", "Lu's Spring and Autumn", "Recent Record", "Biography", etc. Classic works; for politics and literature, the author suggested that "Shangshu", "Warring States Policy", "Zi Zhi Tong Jian", "Twenty -Four History", etc.; For the rhyme books, it is recommended that the Book of Songs, Chu Ci, "Yuefu Poetry Collection "Selection of Tang Baijia Poetry", "Song Poetry Banknote", etc. There are elementary school books and grammar books, as well as casual viewing books.
It is undoubtedly a direction for the majority of Chinese learning enthusiasts. Although ancient works in our country are a huge treasure trove, there are still some works with high quality and uneven quality. After reading the author's book, all read are classic works, and the author also considers the gradual and in -depth learning order, first gives a relatively small bookmark.
The articles in the attachment of this book "Commenting to Hu Shizhi's" Lowest Limited Chinese Studies Book ". Hu Shi provided young people with a Chinese study book, but Liang Qichao disagreed very much, so he had this article and the current book.
Liang Qichao's proposal: "My proposition is very bland. I think that the history of the Ministry of History is the main part of the Chinese studies. Reading the history, "Tong Jian", Song Yuanming's "Book of Chronicle" and a part of Jiu Tong, and the collection of notes of relationships, etc., are common sense of Chinese studies. Everyone who belongs to Chinese scholars must read. When you are satisfied, when you want to be a specialized scholar, if you want to be a philosophy historian and literary historian, you can ask Hu Jun's book; if you want to be a specialist and many doors, I can barely follow Hu Jun. Look, open another book for you. "
Liang Qichao's article is quite polite and interesting.
Speaking of reading methods, I have to mention "How to Read a Book". This book provides a lot of reading guidance, such as reading the directory before reading the text to understand the framework of the book; when learning a field, you can read the theme. This is a relatively classic reading guidance. The reading methods provided above are the same. The difference between the book "Reading Guidance" is:
1) The main is the main characteristics of Chinese studies
For people, it is still obscure. It is impossible to complain about our basic education. After all, for the country, the cultivation of practical mathematical and physics talents is more useful for modernization; classical Chinese, as long as there is a understanding.
In the case of poor general ancient text, Liang Qichao gave the order and guidance of reading from shallow to deep: some simple can be read directly, some are difficult and more difficult to read related related. Other works read again.
) Different reading methods
For different Chinese books, the author recommends different reading methods; and the reader's reading purpose is different, and the reading method is different. For example, for the Analects of Confucius, if it is for the research of knowledge, you can adopt the following ways of reading:
"First, pay attention to the part of the future generations, and see In this way, avoid the truth of hacking. Second, it is classified by the previous article and compiles all the banknotes as part of the study. Third, or the main categories, the main points of doctrine -such as "benevolence", discussing "" on " Learning "," Gentleman ", etc. are the standards, out one by one, and compare the study. Fourth, when reading this book, I will make a confession or Confucius study in this book. When you read it, you can naturally understand Confucius very correctly. Fifth, when you read this book, you must first know the background of the Confucius. "Zuo Zhuan" and "Mandarin". It ’s not difficult. It is the most wonderful to read Baiwen's own righteousness. When it is incomprehensible, it’ s the note in the secondary entry. ”
many people read the Analects Instead of cultivating personality. If this is for this purpose, then "Never recite or verify, and the most of the physical practice can make the ancients teach into me. If this is the case, it does not have to be greedy for more and more. You can be used for life. To a certain two words, the most useful use, then all people are fully understood by each person, not what others can participate. If you read a few times, you will be able to see the full personality of Confucius in order to make the accuracy of your own prayer; there must be several sentences in the meantime. It is also used for life. The Analects of Confucius is not complicated, and it is not effortless to read it. I do n’t look at the young people. Do n’t despise this family. ” "Historical Records", "Xunzi", "Han Feizi", "Zuo Zhuan/Mandarin", "Book of Songs", "Chu Ci" and "Book of Rites", which not only analyzed the compilation of the compilation in detail, introduced the author and its experience, corresponding ones, corresponding ones Note books and its reading also rigorously verify the authenticity of the purpose, compilation, deleted, raw materials, and times, etc., and analyzed its value.
is particularly noteworthy. For the above -mentioned key books, each Liang Qichao has different reading methods and is very targeted. For example, "Zuo Zhuan":
"I rule the" Zuo Zhuan "today, it is best to treat it from the perspective of social scholars. The common phenomenon of society. For example, how the aristocratic class was educated at that time; what was the education of those who suffered; how the aristocratic political organization was at that time; the procedure for its regime was subject; the local administrative status at the time; the laws of international negotiations at the time; The ownership and its inheritance are similar to the later; at that time, the marriage system was similar to the later; at the time, the concept of the disaster of nature at that time; how many types of religious people were as good as the nature of the religious people at the time ... At any time, you can go out of the question that you want to study. Tong the whole book searches for data; the data is slightly set, but the second question is compared with the second question. This research historical materials, often those who have to seek in text. For example: (1) Is there metal currencies in the Spring and Autumn Period? (2) Is there well fields in the Spring and Autumn Period? ? (4) Is there a country where noble politics is not possible in the Spring and Autumn Period? ... In this way, pay attention to research, and you can also take out a number of questions. If the information that can be counterattacked is very lacking or even without any Established. This is also one of the wonderful uses of ancient history. "
This according to Liang Qichao's above -mentioned suggestions to read" Zuo Zhuan ". different.
The number of books to guide how to read books, providing more books. The book "Reading Guide" has its special features.
) Archaeological discrimination
Liang Qichao used a lot of authenticity to identify these important books, such as the book "Historical Records". It was not written by Sima Qian, but the descendants of the descendants, such as "filial piety", "filial piety this season", "Three King Family", etc.; And Sima Qian's original books were lost. There are various reasons why counterfeit articles are mixed in it: the ancients used bamboo slips, inconvenient writing, and no notebooks. Therefore, they often write their own annotations and experiences in the blank space of the original bamboo slips. Later generations could not be distinguished, and some were added to the original work and became part of the original.
The also intentionally tampered with. For example, when Wang Mang usurped the throne, he modified a large number of book records; there were also personal behaviors. For example, some literati mixed their own articles in the famous celebrities, mixed with fish eyes; Some scholars, because of the lack of the original text, wrote it for myself and made up. The above situations have caused the mixed fish and dragons in these ancient books. Therefore, the first suggestion of Liang Qichao was "pay attention to the section of the descendants, and see it with other stories, so as not to make the truth mix."
has previously obtained an ancient book and thought it was born. I never thought that this version on my hand often experienced thousands of years and did not know how many people modified. It is now understanding how difficult these ancient books can be passed on to this day.
) The phenomenon of "Different Books"
The Liang Qichao did not focus on writing this problem. An example is Cui Yan's "Yellow Crane Tower". The versions we are familiar with are "the past people have taken yellow cranes", but the chosen of the Tang poems, this sentence is "the past people have taken Baiyun", but later because of various reasons, from the Yuan Dynasty, it became "Yellow Crane, which became" Yellow Cranes. "And it is accepted by everyone, after all, this poem is written in Yellow Crane Tower. In addition, "Fang Cao Cao Parrot Island", Dunhuang originally "spring grass green parrot continents";
. Another example is the Tao Te Ching. In my impression, more than 5,000 words of this book are divided into "Dao Jing" and "De Scriptures", a total of 81 chapters. In fact, there are many versions of "Tao Te Ching", and the number of words is different. There are less than 5,000 words and more than 5,000 words. It is only because this version of Wang Yan's notes is the most popular, so this version is generally circulated now.
We we do n’t need to understand the specific content of these research, but we ca n’t consider the versions obtained by hand as a matter of course, but also have a learning and acceptance of different versions.
3) Different opinions of different schools
The Liang Qichao mentioned the different perspectives of different scholars. Those who believe that "the Book of Songs" is not to destroy the "Mao Preface" first. " For example, we often say "Four Poems and Erotic Songs". The explanation has always been that "Ya" can be divided into "Da Ya" and "Xiaoya", so it adds up to "four poems".
Liang Qichao's point of view is "covering three hundred articles, divided into four bodies, saying south, Fengfeng, Ya Ya, and Song. Solution, the following winds below the "邶" and "鄘" below the "Fifteen Kingdoms" will be named "邶" and "鄘". Sports. "That is to say," Four Poems "should be" Nanfeng Ya Song ", but" Mao Poetry "does not understand what" South "is, and puts this part under the" wind ", and then" elegant "Disassembled into" Da Ya "and" Xiaoya "to make up for" four poems ", so they disrupted the original poetry style.
"Integrate this kind of information to speculate that" South "seems to be a chorus music. Hey. "This is Liang Qichao's explanation of" South ".
This while watching Mr. Qian Mu's "History of Chinese Literature" at the same time. When it comes to the Book of Songs, Qian Mu still cited the interpretation of "Mao Shi preface" and still agreed with the classification of "Feng Yong Song". Therefore, for us, we can understand different controversy and views; with our current knowledge and cognition, I am afraid that we will not be able to judge which view is more in line with the Book of Songs. rn rn 4）注释之书rn rn 由于本书中提到的都是古籍，而古籍流传至今，已经有无数古人阅读并且留下注释；这些注释， It is often precious information to help us better understand the original meaning of ancient books today. This is why "Mao Shi Preface" causes so many controversy.
This comments are important, because those who write comments are closer to ancient books in their age, and they can see the whole picture more. They can also understand the original intention of the book than we are now in this era. For example, Han Feizi noted the "Tao Te Ching", which became an important reference for later generations; and the "Tao Te Ching" annotated by Wang Xun has now almost become the official version. There is a phrase "The Governance of the Great Power" in the Tao Te Ching. This sentence can have a variety of understanding; but if you see that the predecessors have commented "Don't disturb the people", it is easier to understand.
. After the analysis and reading guidance of important ancient books, Liang Qichao has a column to compare and evaluate the annotation versions from ancient to the present, and give suggestions. What are the best version of readers? Comment.
This is written by Mr. Liang Qichao in a half -classical statement. For those who read vernacular, they may be slightly uncomfortable. However, in general, it is easier to read more than the real classical Chinese, and there should be no difficulty in understanding. If you really want to read more ancient books, this book should be a good entry and guide. Finally, quoting Mr. Liang Qichao's two words as the end:
"Good literature is a tool for cultivating fun. As a molecule of a nation, it must be well appreciated by the good literature of the nation. Only in our "subconsciousness", we have gained root and unknowingly "fermentation". Saint -minded words that are beneficial to the body and mind have formed a common consciousness in our society for a long time. To understand him thoroughly, so as not to consciousness from the same sense. "
" The monarchs do not read Chinese books for the first time, and they are very hard -working. How much compensation to the currently read this book is dedicated to the current book.
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